Some imitations of Pindar and Sappho by Horace

2015.12.31 | By Gregory Nagy Horace’s imitations of Sappho in Ode 4.1 and of Pindar in Ode 4.2 show his deep understanding of archaic Greek lyric poetry. Particularly striking is his visualization of Icarus in Ode 4.2 as a negative model for such poetry. The artificial wings of Icarus are seen as a foil for the natural wings of the swan, the sacred bird of Apollo, who is god of… Read more

On the etymology of προοίμιον (prooímion)

2021.11.01, re-written 2021.11.07 | By Gregory Nagy John Roddam Spencer Stanhope (1829-1908), Penelope at her loom (1864). Image via Wikimedia Commons. §0. This essay connects—and updates—arguments I have presented in previous writings that are listed under my name in the Bibliography below and that are hereafter abbreviated… Read more